Archive: Glossary Entries


A computer is a mathematical machine that can automatically execute sequences of instructions formulated as programs.


A darknet is an encrypted network based on protocols for encrypted communication. It serves as a platform for anonymous interactions and enables users to maintain their privacy online.

Autonomous systems

Autonomous systems are complex processes that carry out actions independently without human control.

Smart City

The EU defines smart cities as cities that use technology to improve the management and efficiency of urban space.

Additive manufacturing/3D printing

Additive manufacturing and its manufacturing processes are characterized by the fact that the components are generated by adding, applying and depositing material.


The term gamification refers to the use of game elements, i.e. design elements and mechanics from games, to create playful experiences in fields of application outside of board games or computer games.

Earth observation

Earth observation describes the collection of information about the Earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems.

Digital inequality

The digital inequality thesis claims that people of higher status benefit to a greater extent from the availability of digital technologies.

Digital Twin

The digital twin is a virtual representation of a product, a process or a production plant that collects and processes data by means of automated data synchronization.

Digital violence

Digital violence is a collective term for those uses of digital technologies with which other people are unlawfully attacked and put under pressure.